Storage of Raw Hides: Raw hides are received by the tannery and
are sorted and batched for processing.
Soaking: The hides are soaked to
restore lost moisture and to soften them for further
A chemical or mechanical process is used to remove hair and soften
and Siding: The hides
are placed on a conveyor where they are trimmed and cut in half into
Fleshing: By mechanical process, excess flesh and fatty substances are removed.
Bating: The hides are drum-washed in various solutions to remove any residual
un-hairing chemicals, and then enzymes (i.e., "bates") are added to
remove undesirable hair roots, pigments, etc.
Pickling: The hides are soaked in a salt and acid solution
to prepare them for tanning.
Tanning: In large revolving
drums, the hides are "chrome tanned" (i.e.. soaked with chromium
sulfate) with results in a more stable, resistant, and flexible
and Sorting: The hides
are put through a wringer to remove excess moisture, and are sorted
and Shaving: The flesh side underneath the grain is cut off on
a splitting machine, and the grain portion is then shaved to achieve
Coloring and Fat-liquoring:
The hides are tanned again with other chemicals to achieve certain
desired properties (e.g., softness, bleached, color, etc.), and then
are drum-dyed for the desired color, and finally are "fat-liquored"
to lubricate the fibers and flexibility and softness.
and Drying: The hides are mechanically smoothed, stretched, and
compressed, and then dried. Drying methods include hanging or
pasting the hides and passing them through an oven or vacuum drying.
mist is sprayed on the hides to rewet them to the desired moisture
Milling: The hides are put onto a dry drum where they are tumbled for various
lengths of time to achieve the desired softness, texture, and grain
pattern. In some cases, water may be added to the milling drum to
render the hides softer and more flexible.